The International Ethnomusicological Symposium – Xöömei – Cultural Phenomenon of the peoples of Central Asia” has taken place in Tuva since 1992. Symposium participants have come from not only the peoples of Central Asia, but foreign countries such as the USA, Japan, Sweden, France, England, Finland, and others. This event bings together ethnographers, archaeologists, linguists, philologists, folklorists, historians, musicologists, and even medical doctors. The object of study is the phenomenon of Tuvan vocal music, often called “throat singing” in English. The main purpose of the symposium is the research, preservation, and rebirth of traditional performance of throat singing. The vocal music competition held during the symposium not only brings to light the most talented performers of xöömei, but stimulates the development of scientific research work on the subject. The first symposium, in 1992, brought about the creation of the first international scientific center “Xöömei,” as well as inspired the first natural-physiological experiments in the USA on the vocal folds and breathing apparatus of performers of Tuvan vocal music, which brought about important conclusions. The International Scientific Center Xöömei has been working for a long time to achieve pensions for artists by addressing the questions of work-related injury and illness for Tuvan music performers. Many xöömeizhi of differing ages have been medically examined and researched as a part of this study. The data gathered from this study are important for the organization of Tuvan vocal music education for children in musical schools and colleges. While performing Tuvan vocal music is not harmful in and of itself, performing it at the frequency and for the length required by the demands of a professional or pre-professional performer has been shown to have fatiguing effects for the performers, thus raising questions regarding the pensioning of these performers in the same way as dancers or circus performers, whose repetitive occupational movements can lead to deleterious effects for its practicioners.